An international approach to tackling Parkinson’s disease

Dr Nic Dzamko and Prof Glenda Halliday have put together an international team dedicated to researching the causes of Parkinson’s disease. They will be the first in the world to use valuable early clinical samples to identify the genetic and molecular underpinnings of this brain illness.

Parkinson’s disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder with no current cure. 1 in every 30 Australians is diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, and these numbers are predicted to rise. Over the last 10-15 years, it has emerged that genes play an important role in the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Approximately 16 genes have now been identified that increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Understanding what these genes do in the healthy brain, and how their functionality might go wrong, has become a major focus in the search for clues about the cause of this disease.

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Dr Nic Dzamko in the laboratory

One of these genes, called LRRK2, has received considerable attention. The LRRK2 gene encodes a protein that belongs to a class of enzymes called kinases, which is interesting to researchers because many anti-cancer drugs developed by the pharmaceutical industry also act by blocking kinases. In the past few years, more than 20 drugs that can block the kinase LRRK2 have been patented. While it is hoped that these drugs may be beneficial for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, more work needs to be done to understand exactly what LRRK2 does, and therefore whether drugs that block its action will be safe and therapeutically useful. To better understand the function of LRRK2, our team at NeuRA has initiated two new projects in collaboration with scientists from around the world.

The first project involves us leading a group of scientists from London, Tokyo, California and the Netherlands. Using 400 samples that have been sent to us from these locations, and that cover a range of brain regions at different disease stages, we will determine if, when and where the expression of the LRRK2 enzyme goes wrong in the Parkinson’s brain.

The second project aims to investigate the idea that inflammation is linked with Parkinson’s disease, in collaboration with researchers in the US and Europe. This project is particularly exciting, as it may identify much-needed markers of early disease. By working with the worldwide LRRK2 Cohort Consortium, established by the Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, we have access to more and better samples to ultimately obtain more meaningful data. We will measure a range of biological markers associated with inflammation in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. By comparing the extent and type of inflammation in people who do and do not have certain genetic mutations, and between people with Parkinson’s disease and healthy controls, we will identify whether inflammation is an early sign of Parkinson’s disease. This world-first access to blood samples from people with a large genetic risk of getting Parkinson’s, but who do not yet have the disease symptoms, is a chance to try and identify potential treatments for the early stages of this illness.

These projects have taken about a year and over 300 emails to come together. Although meetings are often scheduled in the very early hours of the morning to accommodate time zones, working together as an international team to leverage skills and resources is an important step toward solving the problem of Parkinson’s disease. Of course, our work would not be possible without the funding we have received for these projects from the Michael J Fox Foundation and the Shake it Up Australia Foundation.

Books For Brains

The NeuRA Foundation is looking to raise funds to support brain research via ‘Books for Brains’, which kicks off in October.

Sometimes an idea just ‘feels right’, and so it was when we conceived the idea for NeuRA’s Books for Brains event.

From the outset, it was clear to us that people who enjoy reading intuitively know that reading is good for their brains. And so the idea that people in book clubs would take a lively interest in the frontiers of knowledge about the brain, and how it works, was not a stretch.

Books for Brains is a NeuRA initiative calling on book clubs around Australia to put their heads together in the month of October and read a book with a focus on the brain and mind.

NeuRA’s Judy Dixon

The concept has received praise from a number of bestselling authors.

Norman Doidge, author of this year’s featured book, The Brain that Changes Itself, says:

“At this moment, while Australian neuroscience researchers are ‘punching well above their weight’ and making huge breakthroughs, so many Australians display an open-minded wonder about the brain. That’s why NeuRA’s initiative, Books for Brains, is such a wonderful idea. What could be more enlivening than digesting the meaning of new findings, which can so illuminate our lives, by getting together and discussing them within your book club – with the helpful, up-to-date comments on offer through Books for Brains from leading Australian researchers at NeuRA.

Ruby Wax, comedian and author of 2013’s bestseller, Sane New World, a story about what is it like to live with depression, says:

“The problem is in us; in our brains. The conflict is within ourselves. It’s those voices battering us and we project it out on the world. Inside our heads there is always war. I totally support NeuRA’s Books for Brains – unless we learn what’s in our heads, we will never resolve our own issues and the world’s.”

Peter FitzSimons, much-loved Australian author and social commentator, says:

 “Books for Brains is a wonderful initiative to raise awareness about an issue growing in importance with every passing year. Once, while playing rugby in France, I was so badly eye-gouged I actually saw my own brain, and was satisfied it was big. But as time has gone on, I have become aware that none of us can take brain health for granted, and I fully support all efforts to make Australians aware of that very fact.”

Through NeuRA’s Books for Brains, we hope to encourage your book club to think about the importance of brain research. We want to encourage you to discuss one of our suggested books and hope that you find it stimulating, uplifting, funny or even moving.

To register and access this year’s book list, visit us here.

Parkinson’s disease, LRRK2 and inflammation

Over the past decade geneticists have discovered a number of genes that can cause familial or inherited Parkinson’s disease. There are almost twenty known genes that can increase the risk or even cause Parkinson’s disease if they become mutated. There is much hope amongst scientists that by understanding the function of these genes new ideas about how Parkinson’s disease starts and progresses will be discovered. Continue reading